psydoctor8:

Famed amnesia case,  K.C. died last week. Having lost both hippocampuses after a motorcycle accident, he was somehow able to hold on to some memories, though “devoid of all context and emotion”… and his identity.  

That’s actually a common theme in the neuroscience of accidents. It’s easy to see the victims of brain damage as reduced or diminished, and they are in some ways. But much of what they feel from moment to moment is exactly what you or I feel, and there’s almost nothing short of death that can make you forget who you are. Amid all the fascinating injuries in neuroscience history, you’ll come across a lot of tales of woe and heartbreak. But there’s an amazing amount of resiliency in the brain, too. [via]

psydoctor8:

Famed amnesia case,  K.C. died last week. Having lost both hippocampuses after a motorcycle accident, he was somehow able to hold on to some memories, though “devoid of all context and emotion”… and his identity.  

That’s actually a common theme in the neuroscience of accidents. It’s easy to see the victims of brain damage as reduced or diminished, and they are in some ways. But much of what they feel from moment to moment is exactly what you or I feel, and there’s almost nothing short of death that can make you forget who you are. Amid all the fascinating injuries in neuroscience history, you’ll come across a lot of tales of woe and heartbreak. But there’s an amazing amount of resiliency in the brain, too. [via]

radiologysigns:

CT angiogram of a 5-year-old trauma patient performed on TOSHIBA’s Aquilion ONE CT scanner. Click here to see it spin in 3D!

radiologysigns:

CT angiogram of a 5-year-old trauma patient performed on TOSHIBA’s Aquilion ONE CT scanner. Click here to see it spin in 3D!

(via radiopaedia)

Greatest lessons about the mind/self come from our experiences.

Tags: brain art

ucsdhealthsciences:

Findings point to potential biomarkers for early detection of at-risk youth

Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have discovered impaired neuronal activity in the parts of the brain associated with anticipatory functioning among occasional 18- to 24-year-old users of stimulant drugs, such as cocaine, amphetamines and prescription drugs such as Adderall.

The brain differences, detected using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), are believed to represent an internal hard wiring that may make some people more prone to drug addiction later in life.

Among the study’s main implications is the possibility of being able to use brain activity patterns as a means of identifying at-risk youth long before they have any obvious outward signs of addictive behaviors.

The study is published in the March 26 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience.

“If you show me 100 college students and tell me which ones have taken stimulants a dozen times, I can tell you those students’ brains are different,” said Martin Paulus, MD, professor of psychiatry and a co-senior author with Angela Yu, PhD, professor of cognitive science at UC San Diego. “Our study is telling us, it’s not ‘this is your brain on drugs,’ it’s ‘this is the brain that does drugs.’”

In the study, 18- to 24-year-old college students were shown either an X or an O on a screen and instructed to press, as quickly as possible, a left button if an X appeared or a right button if an O appeared. If a tone was heard, they were instructed not to press a button.  Each participant’s reaction times and errors were measured for 288 trials, while their brain activity was recorded via fMRI.

Occasional users were characterized as having taken stimulants an average of 12 to 15 times. The “stimulant naïve” control group included students who had never taken stimulants. Both groups were screened for factors, such as alcohol dependency and mental health disorders, that might have confounded the study’s results.

The outcomes from the trials showed that occasional users have slightly faster reaction times, suggesting a tendency toward impulsivity. The most striking difference, however, occurred during the “stop” trials. Here, the occasional users made more mistakes, and their performance worsened, relative to the control group, as the task became harder (i.e., when the tone occurred later in the trial).

The brain images of the occasional users showed consistent patterns of diminished neuronal activity in the parts of the brain associated with anticipatory functioning and updating anticipation based on past trials.

“We used to think that drug addicts just did not hold themselves back but this work suggests that the root of this is an impaired ability to anticipate a situation and to detect trends in when they need to stop,” said Katia Harlé, PhD, a postdoctoral researcher in the Paulus laboratory and the study’s lead author.

The next step will be to examine the degree to which these brain activity patterns are permanent or can be re-calibrated. The researchers said it may be possible to “exercise” weak areas of the brain, where attenuated neuronal activity is associated with higher tendency to addiction.

“Right now there are no treatments for stimulant addiction and the relapse rate is upward of 50 percent,” Paulus said. “Early intervention is our best option.”

The economics of sex.

medicalschool:

For Two Young Doctors, Working On Christmas Was A Privilege
December is supposed to be the time of year filled with family gatherings and holiday good cheer. For medical residents, quite the opposite is true.
There are no school breaks during residency. Being a medical resident is a real job, and a stressful one at that. Residents work long shifts, even with caps that max out at 16 hours for the newbies and up to 28 hours for those beyond the first year.
For many of our trainees — especially those fresh out of medical— this will be the first holiday season without time off.
I remember lamenting my first December having to work straight through. A wise mentor helped me reframe my self-pity. 
"It’s a privilege to work on Christmas," he told me. "Our patients count on us. You may not want to be in the hospital, but think of what they’re going through." He smiled, as if he were welcoming me to a special club, one that I wasn’t wholeheartedly ready to join. "Your mere presence helps reduce each patient’s sense of loss."
I was rotating in intensive care, where the outlook for patients can be quite grim on any day, regardless of the season. 
A 30-something patient I’ll call Will was brought in after paramedics found him unconscious on the street.
He was in a coma. We didn’t know the cause, but set to work trying to give him every opportunity to arise from the slumber of his critical illness.
I was on the rotation with two other interns. We took turns spending nights in the hospital — each of us taking every third night on call. The first night, my buddy Paul spent the night at Will’s bedside trying to figure out a way to replenish his body with fluid, given the massive output that was draining into his urine bag.
Will had suffered a brain injury. One effect was diabetes insipidus, a condition that meant his kidneys couldn’t hold onto his body’s water. The result can be rapid dehydration and death.
Continue reading.
Illustration by Katherine Streeter for NPR

medicalschool:

For Two Young Doctors, Working On Christmas Was A Privilege

December is supposed to be the time of year filled with family gatherings and holiday good cheer. For medical residents, quite the opposite is true.

There are no school breaks during residency. Being a medical resident is a real job, and a stressful one at that. Residents work long shifts, even with caps that max out at 16 hours for the newbies and up to 28 hours for those beyond the first year.

For many of our trainees — especially those fresh out of medical— this will be the first holiday season without time off.

I remember lamenting my first December having to work straight through. A wise mentor helped me reframe my self-pity.

"It’s a privilege to work on Christmas," he told me. "Our patients count on us. You may not want to be in the hospital, but think of what they’re going through." He smiled, as if he were welcoming me to a special club, one that I wasn’t wholeheartedly ready to join. "Your mere presence helps reduce each patient’s sense of loss."

I was rotating in intensive care, where the outlook for patients can be quite grim on any day, regardless of the season. 

A 30-something patient I’ll call Will was brought in after paramedics found him unconscious on the street.

He was in a coma. We didn’t know the cause, but set to work trying to give him every opportunity to arise from the slumber of his critical illness.

I was on the rotation with two other interns. We took turns spending nights in the hospital — each of us taking every third night on call. The first night, my buddy Paul spent the night at Will’s bedside trying to figure out a way to replenish his body with fluid, given the massive output that was draining into his urine bag.

Will had suffered a brain injury. One effect was diabetes insipidus, a condition that meant his kidneys couldn’t hold onto his body’s water. The result can be rapid dehydration and death.

Continue reading.

Illustration by Katherine Streeter for NPR

Tags: medicine

dig it. 

dig it. 

Tags: brain art